Ambassador James F. Jeffrey is the Chair of the Middle East Program at the Wilson Center. He recently retired from the U.S. Department of State where he served as the Special Representative for Syria Engagement and the Special Envoy to the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS. In addition to his most recent U.S. State Department assignment, Ambassador Jeffrey has held many senior government positions in Washington, D.C. and abroad, including Deputy National Security Advisor (2007–2008); United States Ambassador to Iraq (2010–2012); United States Ambassador to Turkey (2008–2010); and United States Ambassador to Albania (2002–2004). In 2010, Jeffrey was appointed to the highest rank in the U.S. Foreign Service, Career Ambassador. From 1969 to 1976, Jeffrey was a U.S. Army infantry officer, with service in Germany and Vietnam.