Dr. Philip D. Zelikow is the White Burkett Miller Professor of History at the University of Virginia. He served as Counselor to the US Department of State from February 2005 to December 2006. As counselor, he was a senior policy advisor on a wide range of issues to the Secretary of State. Before his appointment to the State Department, Zelikow served as the Executive Director of the 9/11 Commission. Formerly a trial and appellate attorney in Houston, Zelikow served as a career foreign service officer overseas and on detail to the NSC staff. Following this career, he taught at Harvard University and at the University of Virginia. From 1998-2005, Zelikow was the director of the University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. A former member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (2001-2003), Zelikow also directed the privately sponsored Carter-Ford Commission on Federal Election Reform, which led to the Help America Vote Act of 2002. Zelikow received a B.A. from the University of Redlands, a J.D. from the University of Houston, and his Ph.D. in international law and diplomacy from Tufts University's Fletcher School.